What is a nesting doll? Nested doll is a small wooden painted doll, inside of which there are several copies of it in smaller sizes. The first prototype of the matryoshka doll was brought from Japan by A. Mamontova at the end of the 19th century and was the figure of the sage Fukurum inserted into each other. Then Sergey Malyutin proposed sketches for a wooden doll with the face of an ordinary peasant girl in a smart sundress and a colored painted scarf. The name “matryoshka” comes from the most popular in those days female name Matryona.
This name was not chosen by chance, because it was a symbol of fertility and was associated with the mother of a large family. Therefore, the first Russian dolls consisted of eight figures of children of different ages, including babies. Now the nested doll is a world-famous traditional souvenir from Russia. Therefore, at the beginning of the 20th century, the mass export of nesting dolls began abroad. Then there were dolls with different images: not only with images of girls, but also young men, old people, the bride and groom. A little later, the artists began to depict fairy tales characters or even their subjects on the matryoshka dolls. In 1900, the nested doll was presented at the World Exhibition in Paris, where it received a world vocation. Across Russia there are several Matryoshka museums where you can get acquainted with its history and methods of its manufacture. After the selection of wood, its processing and drying, cut out figures, starting from the smallest. After they are coated with varnish and proceed to coloring. Now matryoshkas with images of political leaders or portrait nesting dolls are very popular with foreigners.
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Russian matryoshka – one of the most famous symbols of Russia
This is a toy whose popularity has stepped far beyond the state itself. The birthplace of Russian dolls is Sergiev Posad. It was there that a wooden lady was first invented, from which similar toys of various sizes appeared when opened.
Unlike many folk crafts, whose popularity, due to the emergence of new techniques and materials, has been lost, the Russian matryoshka is still very popular all over the world.
Traditional subjects for the image on the matryoshka were everyday themes. Most often reflected the occupation of Russian ladies of one period or another. The girls were depicted in traditional dresses with scarves on their heads. In their hands they could hold sickles for the harvest, jugs of milk, baskets of berries, etc. A little later, other subjects began to be depicted on the matryoshkas, for example, characters of fairy tales and fables, heroes of stories of famous writers. Also, instead of young ladies, commanders, politicians and other prominent figures could be depicted.
In a certain period of time, even the form of matryoshkas was changed, for example, cone-shaped dolls appeared which inserted one into another was. Such forms have not gained popularity among the common people, and quickly sunk into oblivion.
Traditional matryoshka also differed among them in the style of painting. To date, emit:
- Zagorjian style with bright and saturated colors and many small, clearly traced elements;
- Marinas matryoshka painted with large flowers;
- Semenov style with a strict symmetrical painting;
- Polkhovskaya with the obligatory image of a wild rose flower;
- Vyatka doll depicting a young northerner, modest and shy.
Traditional material for the manufacture of nesting dolls is the species of deciduous trees, since they are the most simple in processing. Most often, masters use linden, as color for painting they take color gouache, ink, and also aniline dyes. The finished product is protected by wood wax or a clear oil-based varnish.
The manufacture of matryoshka traditionally engaged in turner. It is his task to prepare linden blanks. For the recess, only sustained and thoroughly dried tree samples are taken. At first, the master grinds the smallest solid figure. After that, he proceeds to the next figure in size and makes only the lower part of it. After processing, this element is well dried, and only then the upper part of the figure is fitted. According to this scheme, all component parts of the matryoshka are procured.
Dried parts are necessarily processed starch glue. It is applied as a primer and serves as the basis for painting. After the primer dries thoroughly, the craftsmen start painting the matryoshkas. To do this, use goose feathers, brushes, sponges, etc.
The painting techniques used today are different, but the traditional images are very simple, since the doll was originally intended for children to play. But today, you can even see Winnie the Pooh nesting dolls painting designs.
Masters draw a simple face. The head of the doll is necessarily depicted with a veil covered, which is painted in traditional Russian ornaments. Of the clothes most often depicted sundress; sometimes it can complement the apron. The figure is decorated with floral ornaments. After the paint dries, a finishing layer is applied that protects the matryoshka from moisture and chips.
Nowadays, you can see nesting dolls inspired from football and other sports. That is how influential nesting dolls have become!